Military service of Padre Pio

Italian Army 1915-1918, age 28-31


Italy entered WWI on May 23, 1915. Every able body was needed, and many Capuchin friars were drafted. The convents where depleted.[1]  [2]  [3]

  Young Padre Pio.

In letters to his spiritual director and to his friends Padre Pio gave insight in what was going on with him.[4]


Padre Pio used to refer to his military service as “My one hundred days.” In reality he spent as active duty 182 effective days in four different periods of time that he used to call “stations” in the Italian Army.[5]


Pietrelcina, June 8, 1915: “I feel that the draft of my class 1987 is not far away. This thought concerns me a bit, because I don’t know what will happen. I am sick, I am sick of an incurable disease, according to the doctors. But, in these so sad days, who knows if the military doctors will consider me sick.”[6]


Pietrelcina, November 1, 1915: “Today the classes of ’86 and ’87 have been recruited. I am included in the ’87.”[7]


Pietrelcina, November 4, 1915: “It is two days before my departure. I feel very strong inside. I have no idea of what is going to happen to me. Jesus wants to keep me in the dark on this matter. In the military doctors, especially in my district, I find little or none humanity. My sickness is quite evident and known to all; but I fear that a painful surprise is waiting for me. I hope that the most clement God averts this lightning from my head!”[8]

 Young Padre Pio

Benevento and Caserta

On November 6, 1915 Padre Pio, at age 28, left Pietrelcina to go to the military district in Benevento. A medical officer examined him and diagnosed him as suffering of tuberculosis. He sent him to the military hospital in Caserta for further evaluation. [9]  [10]


Caserta, November 18, 1915: “The ferocious captain doctor in Benevento visited me and diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis, and sent me here eight days ago in the military hospital in Caserta, for further evaluation. Here the exam of the rude medical colonel was a pure formality and he said that the new superiors in the regiment would take care of me”[11]


On December 4, 1915 he was designated recruit #12094, and assigned to the Infantry, 10th Company of the Medical Corps, 4th platoon, stationed in Napoli at the Sales barracks. He had to be in Naples on December 6.[12] [13] [14]


Pietrelcina December 5, 1915: “Tomorrow I will have to leave for Napoli. I have been assigned to the 10th medical company. This is a very hard test for me.”[15]


Napoli 1, 1915

   The train station "Stazione Centrale" in Piazza Garibaldi at the times of Padre Pio.


Padre Pio presented himself to the barracks in Napoli, on December 6, 1915. He was not given a military uniform yet, because his status was pending, and was asked to provide meals and lodging outside the military compound, while waiting for a medical evaluation. He was staying at the pension of Maria Valillo, in Via Cappuccinelle, 18.[16] [17]


Napoli, December 12, 1915: “I have been asking for a physical exam since day one, but the captain doctor states that he is extremely busy. I am longing for the moment I can get out of this prison; I have not been assigned a military uniform yet.”[18]


Napoli, December 13, 1915: “The captain doctor is delaying day by day my exam.”[19]



Napoli, December 17, 1915: “Deo Gratias! They did moments ago a physical exam and they gave me a year of convalescent leave because of my illness: pulmonary infiltration.”[20] [21]



  "La Torretta" The one room dwelling were Padre Pio lived in Pietrelcina after the ordination to priesthood.


Pietrelcina, December 20, 1915: “On Saturday the 18th, with the help of Jesus I came back from Napoli.”[22]

The fact that Padre Pio, because of his poor health, had to stay at home in Pietrelcina and not in the convent, had his superiors feeling uneasy about it. They tried repeatedly to have him return to the conventual community life. Soon an opportunity came about to have Padre Pio to go to the Capuchin convent in Foggia.[23]



      The cell of Padre Pio in the convent of St. Anna in Foggia.

On January 31, 1916, Padre Agostino wrote to Padre Pio that the noblewoman Raffaelina Cerase, gravely ill, had expressed the desire to meet Padre Pio before dying. He suggested to him to make the trip to Foggia to visit her.[24]

Padre Agostino didn’t want to pick him up, because in previous occasions the people of Pietrelcina had insulted him fearing that “our little saint” would be removed from town. Padre Agostino “feared a lynching”.[25]

On February 17, 1916 Padre Pio, having agreed with the request, left Pietrelcina and reached the convent of St. Anna in Foggia. He thought that he would stay there only few days; instead he remained for about six months, until September 4, 1916.[26]


Raffaelina Cerase

  Noblewoman Raffaelina Cerase.


Raffaelina Cerase was born in Foggia in 1868 from a rich and noble family. In 1914, at the suggestion of Padre Benedetto, she started spiritual direction with Padre Pio by correspondence. At that time Padre Pio was living at his home in Pietrelcina in convalescent leave from the Italian Army.

Padre Pio was unable to reenter the convent because of poor health. Raffaelina and her sister Giovina, both also in poor health, were living together. Raffaelina wrote the first letter on March 24, 1914, and received the answer from Padre Pio on March 29, 1914. Padre Pio wrote 56 letters, and Raffaelina 41. The 97 letters make the content of volume 2 of the Epistolario. The last letter from Padre Pio is dated December 30 1915. .[27]

Although he was decades her junior, Padre Pio did not hesitate to adopt a paternal tone in his letters to her and she one of childlike submission.

Padre Pio considered the spiritual direction as a need stemming from the function of being a priest, through the action of the Holy Spirit, in order to guide a soul to reach perfection. Epist.II, 46-53

 In 1915 she became gravely ill and asked his superiors if Padre Pio could be sent to Foggia to assist her. She wrote to Padre Agostino: “Make him return to a friary and let him hear confession and he will do much good.”.[28]

Padre Benedetto and Padre Agostino adhered to her desire, hoping that Padre Pio would move to Foggia, reentering in permanently in a convent. Padre Pio left Pietrelcina for Foggia on February 17, 1916. The same day he went with Padre Agostino to visit Raffaelina. [29]  [30]

Padre Pio often celebrated Mass in the private chapel of the noblewoman, and remained there for two or three hours and then he would return to the friary.

Raffaelina Cerase was visited daily by Padre Pio from February 17, 1916, until the day of her death on March 25, 1916.

 On March 24.Padre Pio left Raffaelina’s home in the early afternoon and went back to the convent.

Raffaelina died in the early hours of March 25.  At 4:00 in the morning of the 25th a man knocked at the door of the convent. Padre Nazareno da Arpaise opened the door. The man said that Raffaelina Cerase had died. Padre Nazareno went to tell the news Padre Pio. Padre Pio: “I know. I assisted her: she went straight to Paradise.”[31] [32]



Church of St. Anna in Foggia, and relics of Padre Pio.




While in Foggia Padre Pio usually did not join the friars for dinner. One evening the friars heard a terrible noise coming from Padre Pio’s room. They run to his room and found him beaten and prostrated. He was sweating so profusely that the undershirt looked like it had just been removed from a basin full of water. [33]

That was until the Superior ordered Padre Pio to ask the Lord to stop those noises that disturbed the peace and scared the friars. Padre Pio obediently asked, and the noises coming from the devils stopped.[34] [35] [36]


On another evening, as reported by Padre Paolino da Casacalenda, Mons. Andrea D’Agostino, Bishop of Ariano Irpino was staying at the friary. At dinnertime he was notified of the noises that frequently came from Padre Pio’s room. He said: “The Middle Age is over, and you still believe in these things?” Only few seconds passed, and they heard “an infernal fracas” coming from Padre Pio’s room. Mons. D’Ambrosio was so scared that he didn’t want to stay any longer, and left the convent on the spot.[37] [38]


Padre Paolino da Casacalenda was about to leave Padre Pio's cell, in the Foggia convent, after a conversation with him. Padre Pio asked: "Don't leave; otherwise the devils (cosacci) will come." He stayed a little longer and then left. But just a few steps away he heard a terrible noise, and run back. Padre Pio had been assaulted. He was pale and sweating profusely.[39]


   The convent in San Giovanni Rotondo when Padre Pio moved there.

San Giovanni Rotondo

While in Foggia, Padre Pio’s health was not good. On July 28, 1916, Padre Pio went from Foggia to San Giovanni Rotondo, 25 miles away, to visit Padre Paolino, the superior at the convent, for few days. The cooler mountain air and fresh breezes proved extremely beneficial to his health, and the quiet and solitude were most agreeable to his spirit.[40] [41]

He asked the provincial superior to be transferred to that convent.[42] The request was granted on August 17.[43] On September 4, 1916 Padre Pio left Foggia for San Giovanni Rotondo.[44] The convent would be his permanent home for next 52 years, except for the stint in military service, until his death.[45]






Lucia Fiorentino



Lucia Fiorentino, born and raised in San Giovanni Rotondo, met Padre Pio in July 1916, the very first time he visited San Giovanni Rotondo from the convent of Foggia.

At that time he was still active duty in the Italian Army, on convalescent leave .

Lucia was introduced to Padre Pio by Padre Paolino da Casacalenda, the superior of the convent.

Lucia became one of the first spiritual daughters. She had been very religious since her childhood, and had frequent mystical experiences, where Jesus would talk to her.

In 1906, Jesus told her that a priest would come one day to the convent, and would be like a very large tree, covering the whole world with his shade. When Lucia met Padre Pio ten years later, she did not make the connection to the tree. Jesus himself told her, on August 19, 1923: “Do you remember what I told you in 1906? The tree is Padre Pio. The souls who will listen to him will move forward; those who despise, slander, and deride him will be punished.” Lucia met Padre Pio every other week, for ten minutes of spiritual direction.

Under obedience, she wrote a Diary, in sixteen notebooks. Some of them have not been found. The part going from 1929 to 1932 was published in Foggia, in 1967: M. Preziosi, Lucia Fiorentino, figlia spiritual di Padre Pio.  [46]

She also exchanged letters with him. Only sever remain, because she decided to burn the letters as a gesture of detachment and as assertion that “God only is the owner of my heart.” When Padre Pio was put in isolation in 1931-33, she offered herself “as a victim, for the liberation of Padre Pio.” She died few months later, on February 16, 1934. [47]  Epist. III, 469-489 




Napoli 2, 1916

In December 1916, at the expiration of the twelve months of convalescent leave, Padre Pio returned to the military district of Napoli.[48]


   Souvenir plaque at #30 SS. Cosma e Damiano street, were Padre Pio stayed in Naples.


In Napoli he stayed for room and board at the pension of Carolina Montanile, who was a native of Petrelcina.[49] Her pension was located on #30 SS. Cosma e Damiano street.[50]

Saturday December 16, was set as a date for his medical examination at the military hospital in Napoli. In that examination the diagnosis of the previous year was confirmed, and he was put under observation.


        Trinity Military Hospital in Naples at the times of Padre Pio.

On December 21 after a second examination he was sent to the Trinity Military Hospital for further evaluation.

During this stay in Naples Padre Pio was visited by his father Zi’ Grazio, who brough him fresh products from the farm in Piana Romana.[51]

He spent Christmas at the Hospital. He assisted to the midnight Mass with the other soldiers. In the morning he said Mass alone, with one other recruit serving at the altar.[52] [53] [54] [55]

On December 30, after a third examination he was given a six month convalescent leave, with the instruction to wait for new orders. Padre Pio left the military hospital on January 2, 1917. He had brief stays in Pompei, Pietrelcina, and Foggia, and returned to San Giovanni Rotondo on January 6, 1917.[56] [57]

December 30, 1916, Trinity Military Hospital: “Just this morning I had last physical examination and they gave me only six months of convalescent leave. I’m happy anyway.”[58]They wrote: pulmonary infiltration on both apexes and chronic bronchial catarrh widely diffused.”[59]


Back in San Giovanni Rotondo Padre Pio tried to resume a normal life in the convent, but he fell ill.

San Giovani Rotondo, February 8, 1917: “I have been sick of pneumonia, with very high fevers.”[60]






For Padre Pio the longest trip of his life was the one from San Giovanni Rotondo to Rome. He accompanied his sister 22 years old Graziella to Rome, where she would take the veil in the Order of St. Bridget. He left San Giovanni Rotondo May 14, 1917, went to Pietrelcina the 15th, and the 16th he and his sister left for Rome. He returned to San Giovanni Rotondo the 23rd of the same month.[61] [62]

Padre Agostino repeatedly asked Padre Pio to give him details of his trip to Rome, to no avail. On June 9, 1917 Padre Pio wrote to him: “I am sorry I can’t satisfy your request in the two last letters. That’s what Jesus wants and so be it.”[63] [64] [65]



On June 30, 1917 the six months of convalescent leave had expired. In the official record of service there is clearly written that he “Returned to the Corps on June 30, 1917.” (‘Ritornato al Corpo iol 30Giugno 1917’).[66]

However Padre Pio was still in San Giovanni Rotondo, on August 18, 1917, because he was waiting for instructions. On that day he received an order by telegraph to report immediately to the Military Corps, as he reported in a letter. He left San Giovanni Rotondo On August 19, and was in the barracks on August 20.[67]

San Giovanni Rotondo, August 18, 1917: I have been recalled by telegraph for military service. I will have to leave right away tomorrow morning. May God help me in this hard trial, and free me as soon as possible.”[68]


A story of Padre Pio deserted by misunderstanding is reported frequently. [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] However it doesn’t seem to have solid ground.[83]


    In the early days of July 1917 Padre Pio went in group pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Michael in Monte Sant’Angelo. The group consisted of Padre Pio, Nicola Perotti who offered his horse and carriage, Rachelino Russo, Vincenzo Gisolfi and fourteen students of the seraphic college. Padre Pio did the pilgrimage part on foot and part on the carriage. Saint Francis of Assisi too had visited the sanctuaty of St. Michael some centuries earlier.[84]


Napoli 3, 1917

Padre Pio in military uniforme with the fourth platoon of the Tenth Company of Italian Medical Corps

Back in the Sales barracks in Naples, on August 20, 1917, Padre Pio had two physical examinations and got the same diagnosis of infiltration of pulmonary apex.[85] He was kept on observation. A following exam on August 26, confirmed the diagnosis and Padre Pio was transferred to the fist medical clinic of the University Hospital.[86] There, he had an exam on September 24, and despite confirming the diagnosis, he was declared able for internal services and assigned to infantry. [87] [88] [89]


He asked to be assigned to the health services, and after some negotiation his papers were changed and he went to the Tenth Company of Italian Medical Corps, fourth platoon, stationed in the Sales barracks. [90]


Napoli, September 4, 1917: “By now I have resigned myself. Jesus wants that I too, like many others of our brothers, do military service. I’d like to be wrong, but it’s not possible.”[91]


On September 4, 1917 he was assigned a military uniform and he had to put in storage the Capuchin habit. He stayed in uniform until November 5, 1917.[92]

Padre Pio remembered frequently in his older age, in a humorous way, conversing amiably with friars and friends, those challenging months.[93] [94]


While in uniform he was holding open an umbrella during a thunderstorm. In crossing Piazza Dante he was stopped by an officer and reminded that it was absolutely forbidden to carry an umbrella while in military uniform. Padre Pio recalled how the officer mellowed up during the conversation, and let him go unpunished, even suggesting which tram to take to reach faster the barracks.[95]


For fear that his clothes whould be stolen, he put on everything he had. When he was asked to undress, at a physical exam on September 4, 1917, it was not an easy task. The doctor, observing the layers removed, remarked that he had put on an entire store of clothes![96]


Because of his condition he was ordered special meals, including chicken. The chicken ended up in the drawer of the bedside table, and later in the stomachs of other patients.[97]


In October 1917 the soldier Forgione was sent to the train station to pick up 12 wounded soldiers. [98] Upon their return the captain pointed out that there were not 12 but 13 sick soldiers. He had included Padre Pio in the group sick. “Aren’t you the sickest of them all?”[99]


During this stay in Naples, Padre Pio was visited by his father Zi’ Grazio.[100]


Giuseppina Morgera and Antonietta Vona

Giuseppina Morgera      Antonietta Vona  

During his stay in Naples Padre Pio met two of his spiritual daughters, and he started a correspondence with them for spiritual direction.

Giuseppina Morgera, from Casamicciola, a town on the island of Ischia, received several letters from Padre Pio, but those letters have not been found.[101]

Antonietta Vona from Castrocielo in the province of Frosinone, was living with Giuseppina in Casamicciola. She received forty letters from Padre Pio. They are included in the third volume of the Epistolary.[102]


Convalescent leave

On November 5, 1917 he got again four months of convalescent leave, and after a brief stay in Pietrelcina he returned to San Giovanni Rotondo the 12th of November.[103]


Bilocation to save a General:

General Luigi Cadorna was the Supreme Commander of Italian Army, when Italy suffered a humiliating defeat when six hundred thousands troups either deserted or surrendered to the Austrians at Caporetto, on November 9, 1917. Cadorna was relieved of his command.[104] Alone in his office he was about to pull the trigger to shoot himself. A Capuchin friar appeared in front of him. "General, you will not do this stupidity!" He didn’t. [105]

After the war he recognized Padre Pio in a picture, and went to visit unannounced.

Padre Pio from afar: "Yeah, general, we had a narrow escape that night!"[106] [107]


     Streets of Napoli at the times of Padre Pio's military service

Napoli 4, 1918

On March 5, 1918, Padre Pio was again at the military district in Naples.


The next day he was visited by a team of military doctors at the Trinity Military Hospital in Naples. During the routine physical, Padre Pio's temperature was taken by dr. Giuseppe Grieco, lieutenant medical doctor in the Italian Army, with an armpit mercury thermometer. In less than one minute the thermometer cracked, having gone over the maximum temperature of 42C (107.6). Three other thermometers cracked the same way. Dr. Grieco called in a colleague dr. Francesco Melle.

They decided to try with a bath thermometer, removed from the casing that could read up to 80C (176F). The thermometer read 48C (118.4).

They couldn't believe it, so they tried with a laboratory precision thermometer. This time the temperature was 49C (120.2).

They informed the captain prof. Dr. Felice D'Onofrio, chief of medical services. He came in, measured again, and the reading was 49C. "This is a mystery. This is impossible. I can't believe my eyes. He should be in agony. This man is either a saint or a devil." He prescribed quinine and went to see him in the morning. He took again the temperature and was 36.7C (98.06). "I don't understand anything. Let's send him home to die in peace." [108]  [109]  [110] [111]


      Matricular record of Francesco Forgione Padre Pio given to the capuchin friars, on February 2, 2012, by Col. Luciano Iannetta of the Military District of Caserta, were he belonged.


The 15th of that month he was granted honorable discharge from the Italian Army, with the medical diagnosis of “double broncho-alveolitis”. [112]  [113]



March 6, 1918: “I am in the Trinity Military hospital. Today I had a favorable physical exam. They will submit me to further testing.”[114]


March 9, 1918: “Since the day before yesterday I am in this medical clinic, for better testing. It has been three days that I have an un-abating fever.”[115]


March 15 1918: “I am superlatively glad that God’s grace delivered me completely from the military. Soon my discharge papers will be signed so that he will happily leave Napoli, promising never to come back. I am full of bugs, up to the top of the hair.”[116]

 Street vendors in Napoli at the times of Padre Pio's military service:                                                  

Padre Pio left definitely the barracks. He was give 1 lira for the trip back home. On his way to the train station he spent 50c of the lira he had to buy a paper umbrella from a street vendor out of compassion.[117]

He ordered a coffee at the bar.  When he went to the cashier he was told that somebody else had already paid for his coffee. He was not able to identify the donor.[118]

After he reached Benevento by train he went on the bus for Pietrelcina. The fee was 1,80 lire to be paid to the ticket man when he passed by. On the bus he sat alone. Soon a man sat beside him. The man offered him a hot cup of coffee from a thermos he had. When the ticket man came to him Padre Pio was prepared to say that he did not have the money for the ride but could offer to pay once reached home in Pietrelcina.When the ticket man came, he told Padre Pio that his ticket had already been paid for. Padre Pio looked around, but there was nobody to thank. When he got off the bus in Pietrelcina he looked around because he wanted to thank the man for the coffee. He did no see him anymore, like he had disappeared.[119] [120]

At home in Pietrelcina everybody, including family and relatives, wanted to see him in uniform; so he had to put it on and off several times. When he patiently did it he would say: "Are you happy now? You have seen the clown!"[121]

Zi’ Grazio asked Padre Pio to leave his uniform and military equipment with him. Padre Pio: “No, this is not mine. It belongs to the Government.”[122] [123]


On March 18, 1918 Padre Pio was back for good in San Giovanni Rotondo.[124]  [125]


On June 11, 1921 Padre Pio answered a question by Mons. Rossi: “As for the military service, I was in active duty only for a few days, because of my poor health. I was often sent on convalescent leave until I was dismissed permanently the March preceding the Armistice. I spent those few days in the military in Naples, as a patient at the hospital.”[126]


Padre Ignazio da Jelsi on June 17, 1921 to Mons. Rossi: “They granted him a military pension, on account of his tuberculosis, and now they suspended it, since it was found that the illness was pre-existing. And according to Padre Pio the bacteriological analysis done in Napoli gave a negative result.”[127] [128]



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Capuano, P. (2012). Con p. Pio: come in una fiaba. Foggia: Grafiche Grilli. Cap12

Castelli, F. (2011). Padre Pio under investigation. The secret Vatican files. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. Cas11

Chiron, Y. (1999). Padre Pio. Una strada di misericordia. Milano: Figlie di San Paolo. Chi99

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DeLiso, O. (1962). Padre Pio. New York: All Saints Press. DeL62

Gallagher, J. (1995). Padre Pio, The pierced priest. London: HarperCollins. Gal95

Giannuzzo, E. (2012). San Pio da Pietrelcina. Il travagliato persorso della sua vita terrena. Book sprint edizioni. Gia12

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Malatesta, E. (1999). La vera storia di Padre Pio. Casale Monferrato: PIEMME. Mal99

Mortimer Carty, f. C. (1973). Padre Pio the stigmatist. TAN Books. Mor73

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Parente, P. (1968). A city on a Mountain. Washington, NJ: Ave Maria Institute. Par68

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Ripabottoni, A. d. (2000). Padre Pio racconta e dice. San Giovanni Rotondo: Edizioni Padre Pio. Rip00

Ruffin, C. B. (1991). Padre Pio: the true story. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor, Inc. Ruf91

Winowska, M. (1988). Il vero volto di Padre Pio. Milano: Edizioni San Paolo. Win88


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[1] Epist. I, 11

[2] Ing78, 39

[3] Reg05, 28

[4] Ing78, 39-40

[5] Cap12, 130

[6] Epist. II, 440

[7] Epist. I, 686

[8] Epist. II, 527-9

[9] Pre00, 75

[10] Chi99, 85

[11] Epist., I, 689

[12] Pre00, 75

[13] Cap12, 144

[14] Par68, 29

[15] Epist. II, 530

[16] Epist. I, 696

[17] Chi99, 86

[18] Epist., I, 696

[19] Epist II, 532

[20] Epist. I, 699

[21] Epist. II, 536

[22] Epist. I, 701

[23] Epist. I, 11

[24] Epist I, 730

[25] Epist I, 730-1, Note

[26] Con01, 141

[27] Epist. II

[28] Mal99, 58

[29] Epist. II, 9

[30] Reg05, 30

[31] Chi99, 89

[32] Con01, 145

[33] Cat91, 166-7

[34] Ruf91, 127-8

[35] Chi99, 90-1

[36] Con01, 143-4

[37] Pao78, 54-57

[38] Con01, 144

[39] Con01, 144

[40] Reg05, 32

[41] Con01, 151

[42] Epist I, 798

[43] Con01, 152

[44] Con01, 152

[45] Epist. I, 12

[46] Epist. III, 469

[47] Epist. III, 469-71

[48] Chi99,99

[49] Cap12, 148

[50] Mal99, 59

[51] Mal99, 59

[52] Cap12, 148-151

[53] Ale00, 104-7

[54] Mal99, 63-4

[55] Pre00, 90-2

[56] Cap12, 151

[57] Chi99,99

[58] Epist. I, 852

[59] Epist. I, 853

[60] Epist I, 866

[61] Epist.I, 896 Note

[62] Chi101-2

[63] Epist. I, 901

[64] Cap12, 155

[65] Chi99, 102

[66] Cap12, 154

[67] Cap12, 154

[68] Epist. I, 929

[69] Cap12, 155

[70] Chi99, 103

[71] Par68, 31

[72] Nap79, 29

[73] Gia12,112-3

[74] Cap12, 155-6

[75] Gal95, 72

[76] Ruf91, 134

[77] Win88, 65

[78] Del62, 54-6

[79] Gig65, 58-61

[80] Pas68, 30-1

[81] Mor73, 8-9

[82] Reg05, 44-5

[83] Cap12, 155-6

[84] Pre00, 92-3

[85] Epist. I, 931

[86] Epist. I, 933

[87] Cap12, 158

[88] Gal95, 73

[89] Chi103-4

[90] Bon87, 52

[91] Epist. I, 936-7

[92] Cap12, 158

[93] Ale00, 108-9

[94] Ale00, 162

[95] Cap12, 168-9

[96] Cap12, 159

[97] Pre00, 96

[98] Mal99, 60

[99] Pre00, 94

[100] Win88, 67

[101] Mal99, 57

[102] Epist. III, 811-906

[103] Epist. I, 742

[104] Ruf91, 146

[105] Chi99, 105-6

[106] Win88, 100

[107] Cap12, 163-4

[108] All00, 178-84

[109] Cap12, 168

[110] Gia12, 168

[111] Del62, 52-7

[112] Epist. I, 742

[113] Epist. I, 12

[114] Epist. I, 1004

[115] Epist. I, 1004-5

[116] Epist. I, 1005-6

[117] Pre00, 96

[118] Pre00, 96

[119] Mal99, 75-9

[120] Pre00, 96-7

[121] Cap12, 169

[122] Win88, 68

[123] Pas68, 31

[124] Epist. I, 742

[125] Ing78, 40

[126] Cas11, 200

[127] Cas11, 170

[128] Del62, 57

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