can be divided in two parts.



9 Mary Pyle “Maria l’Americana”

More information at: 


Adelia Mary McAlpin Pyle "Maria l'Americana" 

The life of Mary Pyle can be divided in two parts.

The first part started in 1888, with her birth in New York City, and developed mostly in the New World.

The first part ended at the age of 35, when she met  Padre Pio in San Giovanni Rotondo on October 4, 1923.


The second part was lived in the Old World, near the Capuchin Convent in the little village of San Giovanni Rotondo, for 45 years, and ended with her death in 1968.




Part One: United States of America.

Summary: Mary Pyle was born Adelia McAlpin Pyle in New York City, NY, on April 17, 1888. Her family was very wealthy.

James Pyle, Mary's grandfather on the father's side, had invented a brand of soap that became very popular  in America at the time.

James Tolman Pyle, Mary's father, expanded further the soap business, building a factory ten times larger than the previous one.  The  ''JAMES PYLES PEARLINE SOAP" became even more popular. An impressive advertising campaign brought the brand to the attention of every household. The brand was later brought by Procter & Gamble.

David  Hunter McAlpin, Mary's grandfather on the father's side, was a prominent tobacco industrialist, with the brand "VIRGINIA LEAF". He was also a real estate owner in New York City. David H. McAlpin built in NYC the McAlpin Hotel. at the time it was "The largest hotel in the world".

Mary had four brothers and one sister.

The Pyle family lived in a city home at 673 Fifth Avenue, in midtown Manhattan, New York City, and in a custom built country residence they named "Hurstmont". Hurstmont had 35 rooms, 9 full baths, an elevator, 8 servants, a large garden and a backyard.

Mary attended the exclusive Chapin school, and the Masters School in Dobbs Ferry. She learned music, dance, voice, and the art of teaching. She had live-in private instructors of foreign languages, and became fluent in Italian, Spanish, and German. She attended the most exclusive social events in New York.

In 1913 Mary joined Dr. Maria Montessori and became her interpreter, collaborator, associate and confidante. They traveled extensively visiting schools adopting the "Montessori Method". Mary converted to Catholicism in Spain, visited Padre Pio in San Giovanni Rotondo, and decided to leave Montessori and live permanently near the convent.    


Sections: James Pyle,  James Tolman Pyle, David Hunter McAlpin, Birth and Baptism, "Hurstmont", Social Dance, Schooling, Dr. Maria Montessori, Conditional Baptism, Passport. 

Mary Pylès grandparents and parents:

James Pyle (Mary's grandfather on the father's side)

James Tolman Pyle (Mary Pyle's father)

David  Hunter McAlpin (Mary's grandfather mother's side)

Frances Adelaide McAlpin (Mary Pyle's mother)


James Pyle

Mary Pyle's grandfather (on father's side)

James Pyle, Mary's grandfather,  born in Nova Scotia on August 16, 1823, emigrated to New York City in the 1840's, where he started a soap business.


Pyle initially patented his soap "O.K. Soap" and placed an ad in the New York Times, October 23, 1862, which refers to James Pyle's O.K. Soap.

The ad states "He was the first to utilize in advertisements the letters 'OK' in their business significance of 'all correct'."

The "Word Mark" of "Pearline" was used for "washing compounds and soap powder" and was first used in August 1877.

The filing date for the trademark wasn't made until November 21, 1899.


The Pearline trademark was renewed by the Procter & Gamble Co. in 1946, and by the Hewitt Soap Company in 1983.



James Pyle died on January 20, 1900, at his home at 215 West 45th Street, New York City.

His two sons took over the business. However, it was not to last much longer.

William Scott Pyle died at the age of 49 on January 1, 1906.

James Tolman Pyle, Mary's father,  took over the business.



James Tolman Pyle

Mary Pyle's father


In 1907, James Tolman Pyle, Mary's dad, built a new factory on the New Jersey side of the Hudson  River, opposite 98th Street, in New York.

Four large buildings, connected with covered passageways were built on four acres of land.

The advertisement shows the confidence of Mary's father that the company had in its future: "Capacity Increased 10 Times"E' 

Advertisement for the JAMES PYLE'S PEARLINE soap.


Some few of the many ads:









James Tolman Pyle, Mary's father, died at the age of 56 on February 8, 1912, in his office at 436 Greenwich Street in Edgewater, NJ.

About two years after his death, Procter & Gamble bought the rights to Pyle's Pearline, supposedly saving the company from bankruptcy.



David  Hunter McAlpin

Mary Pyle's grandfather (on mother's side)

David  Hunter McAlpin was a prominent industrialist and real estate owner in New York City



David  H. McAlpin had a very successful business in the tobacco industry, he  called it "Virgin Leaf"


David H. McAlpin built in NYC the McAlpin Hotel, dubbed "The largest hotel in the world"


Obituary for David H. McAlpin in the New York Times, February 9, 1901



Frances Adelaide McAlpin

Mary Pyle's mother

 Frances Adelaide McAlpin (sometimes spelled McAlpine), Mary's mother, was the only daughter of David H. McAlpin, who had nine children.

She was born in 1860.



Wedding of Mary Pile's parents

James Tolman Pyle and  Frances Adelaide McAlpin

Mary's parents, James Tolman Pyle and  Frances Adelaide McAlpin were married on February 12, 1884, at 673 Fifth Avenue, Manhattan,

the home of the bride's father David Hunter McAlpin.

The newspaper announcement is from page 5 of the February 13, 1884, New York Daily Tribune.


David H. McAlpin gave the newlyweds one of the parcels of land adjoining Glen Alpine, in 1886.

The area where the former McAlpin and Pyle houses currently sit was originally part of Morris Township, 1740-1866. 

When the southern part was set off as Passaic Township, 1866-1922. In 1922, the northern part of Passaic Township was set off as Harding Township.






Adelia McAlpin Pyle

(Future Mary Pyle)


Birth certificate with no name yet  April 17, 1888;  

Born at her grand parents’ town house in Manhattan, 215 West 45th St. NY,NY.[2] [3]


Mary Pyle was from a wealthy Protestant and socially prominent family.[4]


Baptism certificate of Adelia: September 15, 1888

Church of the Covenant

She was baptized at the Church of the Covenant, a Presbyterian church of which her mother was member.[5]



Mary, with her little sister Sarah  was the flower girls at the wedding of her uncle David Hunter McAlpin with Emma Rockefeller in 1895. The very large wedding was celebrated at the Rockefeller estate in Tarrytown, New York.



The McAlpin Pyle family

James Tolman Pyle and Frances Adelaide McAlpin had six children born between 1884 and 1901.

Adelia (future Mary Pyle) was the third child.

Adelia had one younger sister, Sara, and four brothers: James, David, Gordon, and Charles.  (Massa, 1986, p. 7)





The family lived in a city home and in a country residence they named "Hurstmont".



City home

The city home was at 673 Fifth Avenue, in midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Mary lived here with her parents, four brothers, one sister, and eight servants.



The building today with Fendi and other stores,

is located across the street from the St. Thomas Episcopal church.



Country home "Hurstmont"


The family had a large country residence in Morristown, NJ, on a 15000 square feet parcel of land.

It had 35 large rooms, 9 full baths and an elevator.


The residence was designed by the architect Stanford white (right, in the picture), of the famed New York based architectural firm Mc. Mead and White.



  The gardens were designed by the architect D. W. Langton charter member of the American Landscapers Association




The extraordinary home was featured on the June 1907 cover issue, with ample description in several pages inside,  of the "AMERICAN HOMES AND GARDENS " magazine:





The home was also featured on a postcard.



Dance and dinner for Sara and Adelia 


 When Sara McAlpin Pyle, Adelia's (Mary's) younger  sister turned 18, her parents gave a

"dance at Sherry's for their debutant daughter and also for their elder daughter Adelia McAlpin Pyle",

as reported by The New York Times.



Adelia McAlpin Pyle

More than 200 guests took part at the dance and dinner. Dance started at 9 PM, and dinner at midnight.


Menu, one of the dining rooms, and the ballroom of Sherry's.

Sherry's was the largest, most elegant and expensive restaurant in New York City, owned by Louis Sherry,

located in the Hotel Netherland, affiliated with the Waldorf-Astoria.


While she was still a child, the family was invited to social gatherings in the home of the president of the United States, Calvin Coolidge.  (Massa, 1986, p. 8)

Rina Santovito: “Maria told me that in her house in America she had three concert pianos at her disposal, and that she had not wanted to learn to play that instrument.”  (Massa, 1986, pp. 92-3)

As a young girl Adelia and her family associated with the best society in New York, and attended the most elegant balls. Later in life, when her feet ached, she would say: “This is in reparation for all the dancing I did.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 8-9)




Exclusive Chapin and Masters schools

 Adelia attended the Chapin School and the Masters School in Dobbs Ferry, New York. (Gau74, 82)

 Adelia was fluent in Italian, Spanish and German.

For foreign language instruction, a tutor would come to live with the family, and Adelia was not allowed to speak anything but the language to be learned. Rather than having her attend a university, her mother sent her to finishing schools to learn music, dance, voice, and the art of teaching.

As a young adult, she attended the best social balls in New York, and became an avid horseback rider. One of the family maids, who was an Irish catholic, befriended Adelia, and on occasions the two of them would attend Mass at the maid's Catholic parish.  Her mother put an immediate end to this when she found out, since to her, Roman Catholicism was not a socially acceptable religion. 


Even though she attended the Chapin School and the Masters School in Dobbs Ferry, NY, when her parents decided that it was time for her to learn a foreign language, they hired a private tutor of that language, who came to live in the same house with the family. Only the language that she was learning was spoken until she learned to speak it correctly. (Massa, 1986, p. 8)

Rina Santovito: “Maria told me that in her house in America she had three concert pianos at her disposal, and that she had not wanted to learn to play that instrument.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 92-3)




Dr. Maria Montessori

In 1912, when Adelia was twenty three, her father passed away. Her mother Adelaide become quite immersed in the work of Maria Montessori, the first female physician licensed in Italy. She had developed a new method of pedagogy for young children. Adelaide established the Montessori Education Foundation in New York, in order to found schools in America that would be based on the Montessori Method. Adelia's mother encouraged he go to Rome and meet Maria Montessori.[7]


Adelia traveled to Europe many times during her adolescent years. On one occasion she met Maria Montessori. Adelia resided in Rome from 1912 to 1913 in the home of Maria Montessori to study with her. Then she returned to the United States.(Massa, 1986, pp. 10-11)

In 1913 Maria Montessori held at her home in Rome the "First International Course on Montessori Method". Adelia McAlpin Pyle and other Americans participated in the course. The students were from seventeen different Countries.


After the course Adelia stayed with Montessori and became her interpreter. In addition to interpreting for her, she become a trusted collaborator, associate, and confidante. In 1914-5 they visited several American cities, presenting the Montessori Method.

Mary Pyle (standing far right in the picture), Helen Parkhurst, Maria Montessori and her son Mario,

in the Montessori school in San Francisco, at the 1915 Panama Pacific Exposition.


Catholic conditional baptism

While in Europe Adelia spent much of her free time visiting Europe's magnificent Catholic cathedrals and Marian shrines.



 It was while praying at this church that Adelia Pyle finally decided to become a Catholic, and she began taking instructions from the Jesuit Fathers. Arrangements were made for her to be baptized conditionally al the shrine by a Jesuit priest. But for some inexplicable reason, in spite of her indebtness to the Jesuits, Adelia decided to have the ceremony performed by a Capuchin.  She had no explanation for this request, and did not know herself why she made it. The date of the rite is uncertain. Adelia chose "Maria" as her baptismal name. [6]

During the ten years that she spent traveling with Montessori through various countries of the world, and through the various cities of Europe, Adelia became fascinated with the Roman Catholic faith, especially the devotion to the Eucharist and to the Most Holy Mary. While in Barcelona, Spain, she frequented daily the Sanctuary of our lady of Montserrat.

In Barcelona Adelia was instructed in the Catholic faith by a Jesuit Father.

In 1913, at the age of twenty five, she was conditionally baptized by a Capuchin friar, and assumed the baptismal name of Maria.  (Massa, 1986, p. 12)

Maria Montessori was also very religious. Although they were constantly traveling, the two Maria never failed daily attendance at Mass and Holy Communion. (Massa, 1986, p. 18)



Maria later told Carmela Marocchino that she herself chose to be baptized by a Capuchin priest, and she also recalled that she was dressed all in white.

Maria also told Carmela that her family was deeply hurt by her becoming a catholic. “When my mother made her will, she excluded me as if I were not her daughter. My sister and brothers got together and decided to renounce a certain amount each, so that I could receive an equal share. It is from this sum that I receive my monthly allowance.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 14-5)


 Her mother also broke all ties with Maria Montessori, and renamed the Montessori Foundation she had established in New York as "The Child Education Foundation".



Reading a book by Fr. Jean-Pierre de Chaussade Maria understood the importance of having a spiritual director.

While in London Maria came across a book by Padre Chaussade about the self – abandonment to the Divine Will, and the importance of having a spiritual director. “I said to myself why I can’t have a spiritual director like Father Caussade.

And I began to say a novena to Our Lady of Pompei in order to find such a spiritual director.” (Massa, 1986, p. 18)  


 It was in Rome that she began to hear about a certain Capuchin monk, whose fame for sanctity was spreading throughout Italy.  (Reg05, 34-8)


On September 21, 1916, Maria received the sacrament of Confirmation by Msgr. Sebastiano Leita De Vasconcellos, Bishop of Beja, Portugal. (Massa, 1986, p. 15)



 In 1918 while working for Maria Montessori in Los Angeles, Mary Pyle applied for a passport.

(In 1918 the WWI was still going on, and there were severe restrictions for Americans to travel to Italy.)

The application confirms the date of birth and the name of her parents.


The second page of the application indicates that she is thirty years old, five feet, four inches tall,

with high forehead, brown grey eyes, small pointed nose, straight mouth, square cleft chin,

medium brown hair, medium fair complexion, and round face.


When she applied for the passport, miss Adelia M. Pyle was living at 21404 Highland Avenue, in Los Angeles.


She included a letter to the Secretary of State, dated February  4, 1918, stating that she wanted accompany Maria Montessori in her visit to Spain, France, and Italy, to assist her in her "War children relief" work.


Maria Montessori also included a letter with the same date, stating that Adelia McAlpin Pyle had been "most intimately" associated with her "for the past three years", and "she would be indispensable to me."


Edgar L. Ewett, director of the San Diego Museum also wrote a letter of recommendation, stating that he

"can vouch for Miss Pyle's absolute necessity to the world - wide work of Dr. Montessori."


The picture of Miss Pyle included in the application


The passport was finally issued, and they left the United States in February 1918.

Montessori and Pyle arrived  in Naples in November 1922.

The last few lines of the document show that on February 3, 1925 she was at the American Consulate in Naples

for the Oath of Allegiance.




Part two:

Mary Pyle in San Giovanni Rotondo 1923-1968


After moving to San Giovanni Rotondo, Mary Pyle rented a room in town and went every day to the church of the convent for Mass and other functions. She confessed weekly with Padre Pio, and became Franciscan tertiary, obtaining a special permission to wear a religious habit very similar to the one of the friars. Her mother and brothers went to see her. She dedicated herself to help the poor and visit the sick. She played the organ and organized the choir in church. She built a house very near the convent, and the door was always open to everybody. Dignitaries of every country stayed at her house when visiting Padre Pio because there were no hotels in town. Padre Pio's mother and father were taken care of and died in Mary's house. She took care of every need of the convent including the linens for the altar, and the hosts for Mass. She moved temporarily to Pietrelcina to oversee the construction of the capuchin convent and church dedicated to the Holy Family and financed with her own money. During WWII she was the referral point to the numerous visiting American GI's, offering meals, advice, and translations.

Mary immersed totally herself in God through Padre Pio reaching the heights of sainthood through the intense love for God and the neighbor (Mark 12:31). When she found the pearl of great price, she sold all that she had and bought it. (Matthew 13: 45-6). Mary died on a bed in the Casa Sollievo, the Hospital built by Padre Pio. Mary spent only few days in Purgatory, and Padre Pio said of her: “Now she can finally listen to the heavenly melodies without having to play the organ.”



Meeting Padre Pio



In 1923 Maria and her friend Rina d’Ergin Caterinici, an Orthodox Romanian, were spending the summer in Capri. Rina asked Maria to accompany her to San Giovanni Rotondo. On October 2, 1923, they left Capri, sailed to Naples, took a train to Foggia, and a bus to San Giovanni Rotondo.[8]


Born only a year after Padre Pio, Maria Pyle's origins were in total contrast to Padre Pio’s humble and poor beginnings.[9]


She wrote about the first encounter with Padre Pio: “We just looked at each other at first, then I fell to my knees and said :’Father’. He placed his wounded hand on my head and said: ‘My child, stop travelling around. Stay here.”[10]

Maria was beaming. She exclaimed happily" "He is going to be my spiritual director." (Gau73, 83)

Maria: “I had intended to stay a few days. I went back to Capri. After a few days I returned to San Giovanni

Rotondo with Madame Montessori. I can’t find peace in Capri.  Then I went to London, to Amsterdam. I said to

 myself: There is a saint living in this world and I am not near him.”  (De Robeck, 1958, p. vii)


Maria returned briefly to Montessori, and after accompanying her to Holland and England, she went back to Padre Pio with Montessori. When they were about to leave she cried out: “I can’t. I feel paralyzed, as though someone had nailed my feet to the ground.” So Montessori took the bus for Rome alone, and had Mary’s possessions sent to her.[11] The two women never again met or spoke.[12]


Adelia Maria McAlpin Pyle for more than four decades was a fixture in San Giovanni Rotondo and a “strong arm” of Padre Pio.[1] (Ruf91, 209-10)

Franciscan Tertiary

Maria went to San Giovanni Rotondo armed with six languages, a musical education and a great love of music, years of study in the best of American private schools, well-travelled, accustomed from childhood to every luxury.[13]


Maria asked one day Padre Pio whether she should become a Franciscan nun. Padre Pio: “The convent is not for you. Join the third order of St. Francis.”  (Massa, 1986, p. 36)

She joined the Third Order of St. Francis in a ceremony led by Padre Pio on August 24, 1924. (Massa, 1986, p. 30)

She obtained permission to wear the habit of  the Third Order of St. Francis in another ceremony led by Padre Pio on September 6, 1925.[14]  [15] She even slept in the habit.”[16]

Maria: “Padre Pio signaled me to come to the steps of the altar where, repeating word for word after him, I asked to be accepted in the Third Order. He placed the little habit on me and had me put on the cord, and then in the sacristy he enrolled me in the Book of the Rule, giving me the name that I had chosen, Pia.” (Massa, 1986, p. 233)

She was the heart of the Franciscan movement, involved in the instruction of the youth. She practiced poverty, obedience, simplicity, humility and charity “with perfect joy.” (Massa, 1986, p. 31)




Daily church attendance

At first Mary rented a room with a family named Vinciguerra, about two miles down the road from the convent.[17] [18]

She went to the friary each morning for Mass and stayed there during the day, with other women devotees of Padre Pio, having bag lunch at noon, sitting on a small stone wall that surrounded an elm tree.[19]  



Frequently Mary shared her lunch under the elm tree with Pietruccio, the child of a poor local family who would spend his day in the convent and visiting with Padre Pio. Later Pietruccio, still at a young age got retinitis pigmentosa and became blind. He began to lose his sight when he was twelve. By teenage he was totally blind.[20]

The people in town called her “Maria l’Americana”, ‘Mary the American’, at first with suspicion, but later, with reverence and affection.[21]


When the restrictions were imposed on Padre Pio Maria prayed long and hard for the restrictions to be lifted. One day she walked the twenty-five miles to and from Saint Michel's shrine in Monte Sant'Angelo, and a year later she walked again to the shrine, but this time spent the night in the village and walked back the next day. These were troubled times for her too. When the ban on him was lifted, she celebrated along with the villagers. (Gau73, 90-1)


Testimonies of Pietruccio the blind, Carmela Marocchino and Tonina Teglia



Pietruccio the blind

Pietruccio recalled that “she would sit out there waiting for the church to reopen in the afternoon. She though me many beautiful things about our religion. There was another boy with me named Cusenza whose family was also poor and had no means. Maria provided his new suit for his First Communion.”  (Massa, 1986, p. 25)

Carmela Marocchino

Carmela Marocchino testified: “From 1952 on, I remained with Maria Pyle, night and day, until her death. I always saw her dressed as a Tertiary, in the habit of the Capuchins, even at night. She would say: “If our Lord calls me unexpectedly, I will be already dressed. She always said the Divine Office, in Latin, using the Roman Breviary of the Capuchin friars. She did the discipline three times a week. Each morning she got up at four and attended Padre Pio’s Mass. ” (Massa, 1986, pp. 155-7)


Tonina Teglia: “I lived for sixteen consecutive years in Maria Pyle’s home. I became infected with tuberculosis and Maria took care of me personally in isolation until I recovered.”

“Maria went to Mass and Communion every day without fail. She could not be stopped from going to church no matter what the weather. Not even when it snowed and the North East winds were blowing. Once, it was windy and raining profusely, it was suggested that she not go to church in the heavy rain. She replied: “What? Am I made of sugar that will dissolve?”

“Every Thursday night she would get up at midnight and keep a holy hour vigil in union with Christ agonizing in the Garden. She even practiced the “discipline” of scourging, which was customary among the Capuchin friars, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.”

“During WWII the American soldiers came in groups on 20, 30, 50.  She enchanted them with stories of Padre Pio. Not only the soldiers, but also the American WAACS (Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps) came, and Maria would introduce them to Padre Pio.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 94-8)



David Pyle 

When Maria’s brother, David, a successful attorney, learned of her whereabouts, he came to see her. He was horrified that she was betraying her social class by living in what he considered an unutterable squalor. He reported it to Adelaide, their mother.[22]


Adelaide Pyle

Adelaide came to San Giovanni Rotondo, became fast friends with Padre Pio, and visited frequently from Rome, where she had an apartment. She reinstated her daughter’s allowance, sending her tremendous sums of money for that time and place.[23]

Adelaide went back frequently to San Giovanni Rotondo. Maria was concerned that she did not convert from Baptism to Catholicism. Padre Pio said: “Let her be. Don’t upset her peace. She will be saved because she has faith.”[24]


One day Maria told Padre Pio that her mother must be in Florence. Padre Pio replied: “No, she is in Umbria.” Maria: “A few days later I received a letter from my mother. She wrote: “Thank Padre Pio for his visit to me while I was sick in bed in Perugia. I didn’t see him with my eyes, but I felt his presence near my bed.” (Massa, 1986, p. 228)

(Perugia is the capital city of the Umbria region).


Maria wrote in her notebooks that when Padre Pio’s mom Mamma Peppa died, she sent a telegram with the sad news to her own mother Adelaide. “My mother answered me saying: “Padre Pio visited me during these last few days, but I didn’t know that he came to give me the sad news”. Maria: “ I asked Padre Pio if it was true that he had been there, and he replied: “I always go there!” (Massa, 1986, pp. 229-30)


On the last Adelaide’s visit to Padre Pio, shortly before she died, he said: “Let’s hope we meet again, but if we don’t see each other here, we will see each other up there.”[25]


Carmela Marocchino: “When her mother died, Maria dreamed that her mother stood at the door of St. Peter’s in Rome. When she told this to Padre Pio, he answered: “Who told you that your mother could not be saved?” (Massa, 1986, p. 108)

Gordon Pyle

Carmela Marocchino: “Maria’s brother Gordon came with his own ship. He disembarked in Manfredonia and went to San Giovanni Rotondo. He wanted Padre Pio to bless his ship but Padre Pio never left the monastery. Padre Raffaele and Padre Vittore went instead.” Gorgon came often. Padre Pio used to say: “Gordon is good. At Maria’s suggestion Gordon became involved in the installation of a heating system and a gymnasium in the Capuchin seminary in Pietrelcina.” (Massa, 1986, p. 107)


“The Pink Castle”



Whit the allowance, Maria was able to construct a three story house near the convent. People called it the pink castle.[26]


When the building was completed, around 1927, Padre Pio, who could not walk well on his wounded feet, rode a donkey down the hill in order to bless it. [27]



Outside of Mary Pyle's villa, with the original mail box of the Italian mail.






Pictures of the inside of Mary Pile's home in San Giovanni Rotondo.


On the ground floor of the house there was a large room which served all purposes. There was a long refectory table, and anyone who wandered in was always welcome to share a simple meal. At this table she sat to write letters for the poor illiterate women of San Giovanni Rotondo, she played tombola and other games with the youngsters who came up on foot from the town two miles below, to be catechized as well as entertained. Also, and most frequently of all, girls went there to practice singing and learn hymns, grouper around the small harmonium that formed part of the furnishing. [28]



Dining and all purpose room.


No one who knocked on her door for assistance was ever turned away. Maria had a large brown book were some of the visitors wrote their names. Many visitor of every class, from Europe and America, passed by, including famous people.[29] During the WWII many American GI’s were recipients of her hospitality.[30]

In her home she made hosts for the Masses and held choir practices. [31]



Holy Family in Pietrelcina

One day Maria Pyle asked Padre Pio: “Can I build a convent in Pietrelcina?”

Padre Pio: “Do it at once and let it be dedicated to the Holy Family.”



Padre Pio was in Via Gregaria in Pietrelcina, several years earlier, with don Salvatore Pannullo,

 when he said  that one day a church and convent would be built there.


With the help of her mother, Maria paid for the construction not only of the church and convent, but also of a seminary in Pietrelcina. The building was erected on the spot indicated by Archpriest Pannullo, in Via Gregaria, were Padre Pio fifteen years earlier had indicated that a convent would rise. [32]




The actual work on the convent in Pietrelcina began in 1926. The first stones were brought by the enthusiasts townspeople, removed from the crumbling old chapel known as Purgatory church. In only one day all the stones were transported to the new site and a mound of stones several yards high loomed in the twilight. As evening fell, another portent appeared. A great light, in the form of an immense cross was seen over the pile of stones. It gradually rose up from the top of the pile and appeared over Pietrelcina. The cross was seen for about half an hour, as it slowly climbed over the sky and eventually disappeared.[33]


Maria moved to Pietrelcina during the construction.[34]



Painting of Mary Pyle in the sacristy of the church. The sign above the painting is in gratitude for her extreme generosity.


In a little over two years the convent was completed, but due to many difficulties, it would be another twenty years before it would actually be occupied by the Capuchins.[35]


Only in April 1947 the first Capuchins arrived to the convent.[36]


Painting of Mary Pyle in the Capuchin convent in Foggia.

Mary Pyle in the Seraphic College in Pietrelcina

Construction of the adjoining Holy Family church began in 1928. During the construction the problem of lack of water came up. Padre Pio was informed, and described a location were the laborers should dig. To everyone’s amazement a large spring was found there. So the construction continued.[37] [38]


Stained window (made in Vietri, near Amalfi) in the Holy Family church depicting

Mary Pyle donating the church to Padre Pio. 


The spectacular Capuchin complex of buildings in Pietrelcina today includes the convent dreamed by Padre Pio in Via Gregaria (now Via Cappuccini), the church of St. Pio and the Museum with many objects related to the life of Padre Pio.



Mamma Peppa


Mamma Peppa with her niece Pia.


In early December 1928, on one of her return trips to San Giovanni Rotondo from Pietrelcina, Maria Pyle had been accompanied by Padre Pio’s mother Giuseppa, as she wanted spend Christmas with her son. She stayed at Maria’s home. When Giuseppa met Padre Pio she kissed his hand about ten times, for each of her family members. When she tried to kiss his hand for herself, Padre Pio refused, saying: “Never! The son should kiss the hand of the mother, not the mother the hand of the son.”[39]


On Christmas Giuseppa “Mamma Peppa” went to the midnight Mass dressed lightly in the cold night. Back to Maria’s home she came down with high fever and double pneumonia. Padre Pio came many times to comfort her, mounted on a mule on the narrow, rocky, dusty path leading from the convent to Maria’s house.[40]


Padre Pio was asked to pray for her recovery. He replied: “God’s will be done.” Padre Pio administered the last rites, and she died peacefully on January 3, 1929.[41]


Maria Pyle sent a telegram to her mother Adelaide announcing the death of Padre Pio’s mother. Adelaide replied that Padre Pio had visited her recently in bilocation. Maria asked Padre Pio if that was true. Padre Pio replied: “I always go there.”[42]



Zi’ Grazio



In 1937 Padre Pio’s father, Grazio, had moved to San Giovanni Rotondo, in the home of Maria Pyle. On Good Friday 1939 Grazio told Maria that as a form of devotion the meal had to consist of one plate of “pasta e fagioli” (short noodles and beans), and a glass of water, and had to be eaten on their knees. There were several guests that day, and all were moved, and obliged. Grazio said that it was an order from Padre Pio. The episode was reported to Padre Pio and he said that he had not said anything. However Padre Pio told his father: “Daddy, you did very well.”[43]


In the last few months of life Zi’ Grazio was not able to walk to church to be at Padre Pio’s Mass,

and Maria provided a mule to take him there.



Zi’ Grazio receiving Communion from his son.


At Maria’s home Zi’ Grazio was frequently at the center of conversation, recalling episodes of the life in Pietrelcina of Francesco, the future Padre Pio. In the last few months of life Zi’ Grazio was not able to walk to church to be at Padre Pio’s Mass, and Maria provided a horse to take him there. Every time he received Communion from his son.



When Zi’ Grazio fell ill, Padre Pio went to visit him every day at Maria’s home. He died on October 7, 1946, comforted by his son at his bedside.[44]



House arrest during WWII

Later in 1941 America and Italy were at war. Mary Pyle had an American passport. She was summoned to Rome and was accompanied in the trip to the Ministry of Internal Affairs by Padre Emilio da Matrice who could vouch for her character. Instead of being incarcerated, Mary was sentenced to “house arrest” at the home of Padre Pio’s brother Michele in Pietrelcina.


Entrance through the stairs were Brunatto stands.

On the right is the arched entry to maternal home.



The house was not inhabited by other people when Mary stayed in Pietrelcina, occupying a room on the second floor.


She reached Pietrelcina on December 27, 1941, and stayed there until October 3, 1943, when, with the Allied troops moving north the Italian peninsula, the American soldiers reached Pietrelcina. A few days later, she started the trip back to San Giovanni Rotondo with the help of Davide Aucone. It took them several days, hoisting her belongings into a farm wagon, traveling through roads and bridges bombed out. It was a long trek back to San Giovanni Rotondo.[45]







In 1943-5 many GI’s went to San Giovanni Rotondo to meet Padre Pio. All of them would look for the “pink castle’, the home of Mary Pyle. She gave them “generous hospitality, preparing meals for them, around her long kitchen table, were twenty people could sit comfortably”, talked to them about “the holy man on the mountain”, and then introduced them to Padre Pio, translated for them, and gave them feedback. Several of the GI’s gave written recollection of their visits to San Giovanni Rotondo. Joe De Sanctis, Bob Mohs, Joe Revelas, Ray Ewens, with the 15th Army Air Force in Cerignola. Eugene McMahon, Tony Afflitto, Carl Amato, Pete Mier of the 463 Bomb Group. Joe Haines, who was with the 416 Bomb Group. Robert Simmons, Ed Kearns and Rudy Tucci, who were with the 99th Bomb Group. Leo Fannings and Joe Astarita stationed in Cerignola. John McKenna, Joe Peluso, Ronald McMillan, Bob Coble, Joe Peterson and many others. Their stories can be read in the books of Frank Rega[46] and Bernard Ruffin,[47] and on the website in San Diego.

Another photo of Mary Pyle with the American soldiers. The soldier to her immediate right is  Arthur J. Haumesser. He flew with the United States Army Air Corp, 15th Air Force, 463rd Bomb Group, out of Foggia, Italy. He visited with Padre Pio with a choir he belonged to.

Artur Haumesser died on January 17, 2013. The photo has been provided by his son Martin.


 Briefly back in the States

In 1948 Maria went back to the United States to obtain from her family the funds to complete the convent and church in Pietrelcina. (Massa, 1986, p. 43)


Rina Santovito: “Annita, who lived at Maria’s home, accompanied her to New York. Upon seeing such wealthy homes and properties, Annita deplored Maria’s renunciation and the poverty she had embraced to follow Padre Pio.” (Massa, 1986, p. 92)


In 1963 Maria gave her will to Padre Anacleto Miscio, bursar of the convent, leaving all her worldly goods to the convent in Pietrelcina.



Work and legacy


“Mary Pyle poured her love and charity on 1500 handicapped children, moved by their condition, and giving a hand to alleviate their suffering.” (Massa, 1986, p. v)


“One day Padre Pio was at the home of the Florio sisters. Many people had gathered ad wanted to kiss his hand. Mary was there behind the others. Padre Pio called her out loudly and said: “Come, Mary! You must be the first because you have done so much good for everyone!” (Massa, 1986, p. 1)

Playing the organ and directing the choir


It was Padre Pio who asked Maria to learn to play the old reed organ in the church.[48] 


All'organo Padre Vittore da Canosa


Maria organized a choir of local ladies which she accompanied as they sung at the Mass services and at the afternoon benediction.[49]


Padre Pio and the congregation were extremely pleased with the added decorum provided by the sound of the organ and the choir.[50]


Mary continued to play the organ until Elena Bandini, an accomplished organist, arrived in San Giovanni Rotondo and replaced her. [51]


Padre Rosario Pasquale: “She had unexpectedly became a music teacher without the help of even a small piano or a harmonium! She used a table knife to beat out the tempo and accompany the singing, since she thought in the dining room of her house. She laughed with that childlike candor, surprised at her own courage and the good results she obtained.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 117-8)



Maestro Federico Caudana


 On May 5, 1956, at the Grand opening of Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Padre Pio celebrated a open air High Mass between the pillars of the entrance to the hospital.




The "Schola cantorum" prepared by Mary Pyle at her home sang the "Pax and Bonum" Mass, written by renowned Maestro Federico Caudana. He directed the schola for the occasion. In the picture Maestro Caudana in a souvenir picture with the members of the choir, sitting between Elena Bandini and Mary Pyle.


Maria assisted the convent with the foreign correspondence, thought catechism to local children, and never failed to supply food and money to the sick and needy.[52] [53]


 Clarice Bruno: “I think her really great work was the moral help, encouragement, and enlightenment she brought into the lives of so many persons in moments of great darkness, misery, and anguish of all kinds, putting them in contact with Padre Pio. I spent years in Mary’s Franciscan house, or in her little garden, listening to her witty a humorous conversation. She would tell anecdote after anecdote.”[54]

Madeline Pecora Nugent: "Some of Mary's acts of kindness became legendary. Several people recalled her tender care of Emerenziana, a woman suffering from a form of facial cancer so hideous that few people could overcome their revulsion to visit her. Mary visited Emerenziana weekly and even kissed her face. After there visit she would joyfully tell her companions that the poor invalid was 'so nice, so very nice.' " (Mult09, 132-3)



Foreign correspondence


 Rosine Gaubert, Paris: “I met Maria in 1959 and worked with her on the foreign correspondence. All those people who received letters signed by her can rest assured that they received Padre Pio’s thoughts and nothing more. Maria had a big metal box full of letters in several languages. At the bottom of the box was a letter in German sent five years before. I convinced Mary to send a note with Padre Pio’s blessing.  A short time later Maria received a letter, overflowing of gratitude for Padre Pio. Our letter had arrived the night before a serious surgical operation, and the surgery was successful. Maria gave the best of herself to everyone, and everyone had the impression of being her personal friend.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 124-5)

 Testimony of Maria Winowska

Maria Pyle to Maria Winowska in 1955, about Padre Pio’s pictures. “Tired of fighting, solicited from every side Padre Pio’s superiors have ordered him not to make blank the film rolls. For many years the photographers persisted to no avail, front, back, side, entering secretly, trying to catch him by surprise: the film rolls stayed blank. The same camera could take perfect pictures, but when the lens was pointed on Padre Pio, the click operated uselessly. It made you cry. The pilgrims wanted to have a picture of Padre Pio. Now he doesn’t do this, but all the photographs that you see are recent. Many years of his life have been taken away from the photographers. It is a irreparable loss. On the other side, if it was not for the vow of obedience we wouldn’t even have these pictures.” (Winowska, 1988, p. 48)

Making hosts for the Mass

Fra Gerardo: “For many years I was the cook and the doorkeeper, and I also prepared the hosts for the Mass. For lack of time I had to make the hosts at night, and more and more where needed. I told the Padre Superior and he said: “The fountain of goodness will help.” He told Maria and she said: “I cannot have any greater honor than to work for Jesus in the Holy Sacrament.” She started immediately, the same day, and continued until her death.” (Massa, 1986, p. 130)

Testimonies by Padre Vittorio, Padre Gian Battista and Padre Federico


Padre Vittorio Massaro: “I was a student friar in 1931 when I met Maria in the church. She was just back from a long trip, and had not had even a drop of water since the day before, according to the fasting rules of that time. She asked to relieve the Holy Communion. Padre Pio quickly accommodated her. Her house could have been called “The house of God’s love and charity.” Her story was for Padre Pio like “Madonna Jacopa de’ Settesoli” was for St. Francis.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 132-3)


Rev. Gian Battista Lo Monaco: “I met Maria in 1937, on my first visit to Padre Pio right after the ordination. In the presence of a priest her heart becomes filled with feeling of veneration. She was open, cordial, and maternal. She had a high spiritual sensitivity for the “consecrated. I decided to celebrate in San Giovanni Rotondo the 25th anniversary of my ordination on July 11, 1962. When I told Maria she was able to arrange a solemn Mass with chants, flowers, lights at the main altar. I celebrated in the presence of Padre Pio. After mass another surprise waited for me. She invited me and the other priests at her house. We had a special dinner at the festively decorated table. As if this was not enough, she gave me an envelope with a card and money.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 133-5)


Padre Federico Carrozza: “Maria was gentle, humble, calm, and patient. Her life was full of heroic virtues.” (Massa, 1986, p. 82)


Padre Dionigi Bonfitto: “Her prodigious charity was without limit. No one ever left her without having received something.” (Massa, 1986, p. 83)


Padre Pier Giuliano Cortese: “Her house was completely Capuchin. She instilled the kind of serenity that comes only from one who is at peace with God and lives supernaturally.” (Massa, 1986, p. 83)


Padre Costantino Capobianco: “In a conversation she could raise you to the high spheres of asceticism and mysticism.” (Massa, 1986, p. 84)


Padre Gabriele Bove: “Her home looked like a monastery built by the angels. She always sent gift packages to each member of our convent on the various solemn occasions thought the year. She used to say: “It is my duty to provide for the friars who take care of my spiritual father.”(Massa, 1986, pp. 86-7)



Testimony by Fra' Giovanni Sammarone da Trivento


Fra’ Giovanni Sammarone: “Towards the end of September 1950 I became gravely ill. I was told by Dr. Sanguinetti that I should prepare for my imminent death “unless the hand of God intervenes”. Maria Pyle took care of me better than a mother. From the beginning of October until the end of January 1951 she sent me tasty nutritious meals to help me regain my strength. I recovered.”  (Massa, 1986, pp. 90-1) Fra' Giovanni helped Padre Pio over the years, until Padre Pio's death in 1968.




Testimonies of John McCaffery, Padre Ezechia


John McCaffery: “She trained the village girls in womanly arts and crafts, and in womanly dignity. She also helped in their formal education. I never met anyone who was not impressed by the blend of sweetness and strength that went to make her personality.”[55]




Padre Ezechia Cardone: “I met Maria in 1943 in Pietrelcina, and later in San Giovanni Rotondo I saw her several times. She had printed at her own expensed “The agony in Christ’s Garden” and “The Immaculate”, two booklets written by Padre Pio. She made sure to distribute them herself. Padre Pio assured me and her that he was pleased.”  (Massa, 1986, pp. 122-3)



Testimony of Felicetta Massa about Fra' Leone Mangiacotti

Over the years Maria Pyle financed the seminary studies of at least ten priests. [56]

Massa family

Felicetta Massa: “Many years ago Maria from her window saw a young shepherd caring for his sheep. She approached him. The boy said that he wanted to become a monk, but he had never been to school because his mom had no money. Mary took care of his wish. He became Brother Leone Mangiacotti, missionary in Angola for many years.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 201-2)


Monsignor John Esseff


Monsignor John Esseff.  With Mother Theresa

 Father John Esseff, from Scranton, Pennsylvania, in May of 1959, accompanied by his friend Father Bob Calligan,

 made his first trip to Europe.

After visiting Rome, they wanted to see Padre Pio, but were told it was difficult to approach him. They were told to reach San Giovanni Rotondo and then ask for a woman by the name of Mary Pyle “because she might get us to see him.”

They did, “and Mary Pyle invited us to go to her cottage and have something to eat. She put on the table some wine, some bread, and some cheese for us. While those simple hospitalities were taking shape, I saw Padre Pio come into the cottage and say to me: “What are you doing here? Are you a curiosity seeker?” 

“I was completely surprised! But I answered him what I had been thinking. We talked about Jesus and the Blessed Sacrament. There was no talk of wounds. We talked for about twenty minutes, and then he left. I turned to Mary Pyle and I asked her: “Does he come here often?”

Her reply was strange: “We didn’t know that he was here. If he had a conversation with you, he came to see you. No one else at the table saw him here. He does that frequently. He has the gift of bilocation.” (Ess20, 141-4)



Mother of the poor

Rosa Melchionda: “She was the mother of the poor.” (Massa, 1986, p. 243)


“Mary had a life filled with prayer and penance, simplicity and perseverance. She helped thousands of people in any kind of tribulation.[59]



Felicetta Massa: “Maria Pyle was the only one to whom you could go, knowing that you would not be rejected.” (Massa, 1986, p. 244)



Luigina Privignano: “At the table she always tried to steer the conversation away from gossiping, banalities and pettiness, by telling delightful witty tales about her childhood.” (Massa, 1986, p. 123)


Rina Santovito: “Among the guests that I remember there where diplomats, doctors, famous singers and composers.”   (Massa, 1986, pp. 91-2)    


Padre Bonaventura Massa; “We found three albums filled with more than three thousands names and addresses of people from every social level. Many signatures are accompanied by expressions of gratitude.”  (Massa, 1986, p. 216)


Nesta De Robeck in 1958: “Maria Pyle is as much part of the place as her own almond trees. She and her house personify Franciscan hospitality: I have never discovered a moment when the door is shut; people of all languages seem to be always coming and going; the house is always full. All day long a varied procession of old and young come to the door with local news and needs: no one goes away unsatisfied.” (De Robeck, 1958, pp. vi-vii)


Clarice Bruno: “I think her really great work was the moral help, encouragement, and enlightenment she brought into the lives of so many persons in moments of great darkness, misery, and anguish of all kinds, putting them in contact with Padre Pio. I spent years in Mary’s Franciscan house, or in her little garden, listening to her witty a humorous conversation. She would tell anecdote after anecdote.”  (Bruno, 1970, p. 77) 




Mary Pyle and Padre Pio



Mary Pyle was the godmother at the baptism of Pio Masone. Pio was the son of Padre Pio's niece Pia Pennelli.




Death of Mary Pyle



Padre Pio had once told Mary that she would be the first to die and that he would follow soon after.[57]


The spring of 1968 was her last. Maria died in Casa Sollievo at eleven o’clock in the evening on April 25, 1968.




Testimonies of Maria Salvatori and Rosine Goubert

Maria Salvatori attended  to Maria Pyle every night during the last week or her life. She reported: “Later in the evening of April 25, I called the sister nurse and the doctor with extreme urgency. Maria’s head had dropped, ad all was finished. I rung the bell and awakened everyone. It was eleven o’clock. The doctor arrived and said: “Why did you call me? She is dead!” The doctor went away. Maria’s face went from pink to very pale. We closed her eyes but her mouth remained slightly open. We called Padre Innocenzo to give her the Extreme Unction anyway. He had already retired, and twenty minutes passed before he arrived. Padre Innocenzo began the prayer for the Extreme Unction. At that moment Maria’s face became pink again. Her mouth opened, her lips became colored, and her eyes remained closed rather then semi opened. I touched her pulse. It was beating again. I was quite perturbed by this turn of the events. I am willing to swear, even on my death bed, before God and Our Lady, before anyone, that she was dead and returned to life in order to receive the sacrament of the Extreme Unction. I can say once again that her heart had stopped, yet without any stimulant whatever, without injections, it began to beat again.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 47-8)


Rosine Goubert: “In a cage at home, Maria had a little bird “Cilli” that delighted the entire community with his trilling. Half an hour before Maria’s death Cilli began singing on top of his voice. It was 10:30 PM and the cage had been covered for the night.  Minutes later the telephone rang, and the hospital called Carmela to bring the clothes in which Maria was to be buried.” (Massa, 1986, p. 128)


Testimonies of Padre Alessio, Padre Adriano, and Laurino Costa

Maria died in Casa Sollievo on April 25, 1968. Padre Alessio asked Padre Pio were she was, and he replied that she was in Purgatory. Later Mary appeared in a dream to one of her friends and told her that she had entered in Heaven on May 5. Padre Pio, informed about the dream replied: “She was always a good religious, and the Lord knows how to give a just reward to those who deserve it.”[58]


Padre Adriano and Padre Alessio, three or four days after Maria’s death were with Padre Pio on the veranda. Padre Alessio asked point blank where “Maria l’Americana” was. Padre Pio replied quickly: “In Purgatory”. Padre Adriano observed: “How come. After all that good she has done?” Padre Pio: “It’s about what she failed to do before!”  (Massa, 1986, p. 56)


On May seven 1968 Laurino Costa dreamed of Maria. She told him that she had entered Heaven on May 5, the feast of San Pio. On May nine Laurino after confession with Padre Pio told him about the dream. Padre Pio replied: “She was always a good religious, and the Lord knows how to give a just reward to those who deserve it.” (Massa, 1986, pp. 56-7)


Only nine days had passed since her death on April 25. May 5 was the name day (onomastico) of Padre Pio.

 Padre Pio: “Now she can finally listen to the heavenly melodies without having to play the organ.” (Massa, 1986, p. 239)



Maria “Mary” Pyle rests in the cemetery of San Giovanni Rotondo, in the chapel of the Capuchin friars, with  Zi’ Grazio and Mamma Peppa.



A mosaic in the crypt of the new San Pio church depicts Mary Pyle greeting Padre Pio at the door of Heaven.



Currently, part of Mary Pyle's home houses a Capuchin vocational center.


Book on Mary Pyle written by Padre Bonaventura Massa

"Mary's House" Mary Pyle: under the spiritual guidance of Padre Pio

by Dorothy Gaudiose 


More information at



   Return to front page                   10 Spiritual children 



Capuano, P. (2012). Con p. Pio: come in una fiaba. Foggia: Grafiche Grilli. Cap12

Clarice, B. (1970). Roads to Padre Pio. Roma: Citta' Nuova. Bru70

De Robeck, Nesta (1958). Padre Pio. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company.

Duchess Suzanne, of St. Albans (1983). Magic of a Mystic. Stories of Padre Pio. New York: Clarkson N. Potter. Duc83

Gaudiose, D. M. (1974). Prophet of the people. A biography of Padre Pio. New York: Alba House. Gau74

Massa, Padre Bonaventura (1986). Mary Pyle. She lived doing good to all. San Giovanni Rotondo: Our Lady of Grace Capuchin Friary

McCaffery, J. (1978). Tales of Padre Pio. Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel. McC78

Rega, F. M. (2005). Padre Pio and America. Rockford: TAN books. Reg05

Ruffin, C. B. (1991). Padre Pio: the true story. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor, Inc. Ruf91



[1] Ruf91, 209-10

[2] Rof91, 210

[3] Reg05, 33

[4] Bru70, 75

[5] Ruf91, 210

[6] Reg05, 37

[7] Ruf91, 212

[8] Ruf91, 213

[9] Reg05, 33

[10] Ruf91, 214

[11] Reg05, 69

[12] Ruf91, 214

[13] Bru70, 75

[14] Gau73, 89

[15] Ruf 91,214

[16] Reg05, 77

[17] Ruf91, 214

[18] Reg05, 70

[19] Reg05, 70

[20] Duc83, 81

[21] Ruf91, 214-5

[22] Ruf91, 215

[23] Ruf91, 515

[24] Ruf 91, 215

[25] Reg05, 73

[26] Ruf91, 215

[27] Reg05, 74

[28] Bru70, 76

[29] Gau73, 90

[30] Reg95, 74

[31] Reg05, 75

[32] Ruf91, 216

[33] Reg05, 92

[34] Reg95, 92

[35] Reg95, 92

[36] Reg95, 93

[37] Ruf91, 217

[38] Reg95, 94

[39] Reg95, 95

[40] Bru70, 76-7

[41] Reg05, 94-6

[42] Reg95, 97

[43] Cap12, 115-6

[44] Cap12, 117

[45] Reg95, 114-7

[46] Reg95

[47] Ruf91

[48] Retg05, 77

[49] Gau73, 89-90

[50] Reg05, 78

[51] Reg05, 78

[52] Ruf91, 215

[53] Gau73, 89

[54] Bru70, 77

[55] McC78, 81-2

[56] Ruf91, 216

[57] Reg05, 243

[58] Reg05, 245-7

[59] Bru70, 78